Ethical hacking is obviously a very controversial area. The position of clients of the organization contracting for the security test whose personal data may be accessed has to be taken into consideration. Most ethical hackers are in the business of hacking for profit, an activity known as penetration testing, or pen testing for short. Pen testing is usually conducted by a security professional to identify security risks and vulnerabilities in systems and networks. The purpose of identifying risks and vulnerabilities is so that a countermeasure can be put in place and the risk mitigated to some degree. Additionally, state, country, or international laws must be understood and carefully considered prior to using hacking software and techniques.